vargas era


The former dictator was engulfed in a wave of antipathy. For three years Vargas’s popularity largely protected him from attack by political adversaries, who directed their criticism against members of his administration. Highlands, coastal regions, and the Pantanal, Regional, state, and local administration, Administrations of Costa e Silva, Médici, and Geisel. It limited the presidential term to five years, separated the three branches of government, and restricted federal intervention in the affairs of the states. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In 1953 the government intervened directly by creating a national petroleum corporation, Petrobrás. Vargas, formerly the governor of the state of Rio Grande do Sul , remained central to Brazilian national life for the next 24 years, holding office as chief executive on two occasions, 1930–45 and 1951–54.
He was dismissed as labour minister in 1954 because of his role (with the president’s acquiescence) in radically doubling the minimum wage, an action that contributed greatly to the inflationary spiral. For the next 15 years Vargas assumed largely dictatorial powers, ruling most of that time without a congress. Vargas increasingly shifted the states’ political, economic, and social functions to the aegis of the national government. The following year Brazil promulgated a new constitution—the nation’s fifth and the fourth of the republican era—which included safeguards intended to prevent the rise of another overpowering president or dictator. Corrections? Getulio)では、彼は国民から最も愛された首領で、革命が成功してからずっと自由主義のリーダーを務め、資本家と闘い高い国際的利益をもたらしたと讃えている。この曲はシモーネによってカヴァーされた。, BBC On This Day 24 August - 1954: Brazilian president found dead, https://ja.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ジェトゥリオ・ドルネレス・ヴァルガス&oldid=78056300. Getúlio Vargas conseguiu destacar-se na cena política nacional e, por isso, a primeira fase de governo dele na chefia da República, entre os anos 1930 e 1945, ficou conhecida como Era Vargas.

The tax structure was revised to make state and local administrations dependent upon the central authority, the electorate was quadrupled and granted the secret ballot, women were enfranchised, extensive educational reforms were introduced, social-security laws were enacted, labour was organized and controlled by the government, and workers were assured a wide range of benefits, including a minimum wage, while business was stimulated by a program of rapid industrialization. Brazil’s air force helped defend the South Atlantic by flying antisubmarine patrols, and the United States used some Brazilian naval and air bases, including a major air field at Natal that provided the closest link between the Americas and Africa.

His greatest accomplishment was to guide Brazil as it weathered the far-reaching consequences of the Great Depression and the accompanying polarization between communism and fascism during his long tenure in office. However, he also diversified the agricultural sector, enacted social legislation that benefited the working class, and urged further industrialization through import-substitution (using protective tariffs and other policies to limit imports while encouraging domestic manufacturing). Accordingly, he was again installed in the presidency on January 31, 1951, in spite of the serious apprehensions of the military leaders who had deposed him in 1945. By mid-1954 criticism of the government was widespread, and the armed forces, professing shock over scandals within the regime, joined in the call for Vargas’s withdrawal. Vargas, however, did not change the private-enterprise system, nor did his social reforms extend in practice to the rural poor. João Goulart, Vargas’s young protégé and vice president of the Brazilian Labour Party (Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro; PTB), was accused of using his office to transform organized labour into a political machine loyal to Vargas. Contemplating a military career, he joined the army when he was 16 but soon decided to study law. Getúlio Vargas voltou como presidente eleito na década de 1950, mas seu governo teve fim antes do período do mandato. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Emeritus Professor of History, University of California, Davis. In 1965 the…. In 1934 a new constitution granted the central government greater authority and provided for universal suffrage. Brazil faced grave economic problems, including inflation and a growing national debt, as government expenditures consistently outran revenues. Author of. Subsequent investigations revealed that the president’s personal guard had hired the assassins and that corruption was widespread within the administration. During this time he survived a São Paulo-led revolt in 1932 and an attempted communist revolution in 1935. In 1908, shortly after graduating from the Porto Alegre Law School, he entered politics. A number of other parties were organized and entered elections through the 1950s and early ’60s, but few of them gained much influence.

Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Vargas, formerly the governor of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, remained central to Brazilian national life for the next 24 years, holding office as chief… He held sole power as provisional president from Nov. 3, 1930, until July 17, 1934, when he was elected president by the constituent assembly.


His own appointed governors were charged with appointing mayors By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Brazil sent an expeditionary force to Italy in July 1944 that distinguished itself in several battles. By 1922 he had risen rapidly in state politics and was elected to the National Congress, in which he served for four years. Vargas, however, was unable to dominate the political forces of the country or to exploit social and economic trends to his advantage, and, because he endeavoured to abide by the constitution of 1946, some Brazilians criticized him for weak leadership. Foi forçado a renunciar à presidência após um ultimato dos militares. A series of crises followed, reaching a climax on August 5, 1954, when assassins murdered an air force officer and attempted to kill Carlos Lacerda, the editor of an opposition newspaper. General Eurico Gaspar Dutra, Vargas’s own choice, won the presidential election in December 1945; Vargas himself was elected to the Senate. Thus, he resorted increasingly to ultranationalistic appeals to hold popular support and incurred the animosity of the U.S. government, which encouraged intransigent opposition from his enemies. Brazil: The Vargas era Getúlio Vargas , the losing candidate in the 1930 presidential election, led a revolt that placed him in power. Esta última característica lhe rendeu o título de “pai dos pobres’. Getúlio Vargas foi uma personalidade que até hoje é lembrada por seu nacionalismo, intervencionismo e populismo. His dramatic deathbed testament to the country led to a great resurgence of mass support, allowing for a rapid return of his followers to power.

ジェトゥリオ・ドルネレス・ヴァルガス(Getúlio Dornelles Vargas, 1882年4月19日 − 1954年8月24日)は、ブラジルの政治家。1930年から1945年までの間と、1951年から1954年までの間にブラジル大統領を務めた。愛称はGEGE(ジェジェ)。, 1882年にブラジル南部リオグランデ・ド・スル州のサン・ボルジャ(São Borja)で生まれた。ポルト・アレグレ法科大学卒業後に政界入りする[1]。1911年3月にダルシー・リマ・サラマーニョと結婚した。政治家としては州議会議員、連邦議会議員を経て、1926年から1927年には大蔵大臣も務めた。, 1930年の大統領選挙で敗れるが、当時の政治腐敗などの不満を背景に、軍事クーデタを成功させて政権を掌握した。統一国家の建設を目標にサンパウロの反乱を鎮圧し[1]、1934年に議会から認められて正式に大統領の座についた。中央集権的でファッショ色の強い新憲法を制定し、イデオロギーの国家統一を口実に共産党の反乱を鎮圧した[1]。, 1937年、大統領選挙を目前とする中で、再び軍事行動によって選挙を中止させると、議会も解散させて独裁政治を行った(この時期をエスタード・ノーヴォ体制(新国家体制)とも称する)。新国家の樹立にも力を尽くした極右政党のインテグラリスタ党も解散させた[1]。労働者の保護と規制による体制化、資源の国有化、有色移民の制限を規定した憲法によって、イタリアやドイツの全体主義に似た理念で自主外交の確立と統一国家の形成を目指した[1]。やがて対アメリカ合衆国との協調路線を明らかにして、1944年にはイタリア戦線に派兵した[1]。, ヴァルガスの独裁は第二次世界大戦中も続くが、終戦後の1945年10月末に軍事クーデタが起こり失脚した。しかし同じ年のうちに上院議員に選出された[1]。, 1951年には、ヴァルガスはかつてのような軍事クーデタでなく、ブラジル史上初の民主的選挙によって大統領に就任した。その際、都市プロレタリアートや左翼からの支持を集めるため、その政治姿勢はかつてより左傾化しており、このために第二次ヴァルガス政権と、以降1964年までの諸政権の時代をポプリズモ時代と呼ぶ。彼の民族主義的、ポプリスタ的姿勢は都市労働者や中流階級を引きつけたが、戦後の好況期の終わりとともに支持も衰退した[1]。, 政権末期は国民解放党(共産党)に接近した。1954年にはこれに反発を抱いたアメリカ合衆国から独裁政治を糾弾される。また、反大統領の姿勢をとるジャーナリスト暗殺計画などへの関与も疑われ、ヴァルガスへの退陣要求が強まった。こうした中、1954年8月25日にヴァルガスはピストル自殺を遂げた。, ブラジルを代表するミュージシャンであるエドゥ・ロボとシコ・ブアルキの共作曲である(Dr. Vargas, formerly the governor of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, remained central to Brazilian national life for the next 24 years, holding office as chief executive on two occasions, 1930–45 and 1951–54.

Getúlio Vargas assumiu o governo sob Vargas maintained a precarious balance between those advocating greater state intervention in the economy (including government ownership of industries and natural resources) and those insisting instead on domestic and foreign private investment. Rather than accept forced retirement, Vargas took his life on Aug. 24, 1954.

Although elected as senator from Rio Grande do Sul in December 1945, he went into semiretirement until 1950, when he emerged as the successful presidential candidate of the Brazilian Labour Party. Three years later, following another uprising, President Vargas seized virtually absolute powers and set up still another constitution, under which he continued as president.

While appearing to accept defeat, Vargas in October of that year led the revolution, organized by his friends, that overthrew the oligarchical republic. …in the 1940s under President Getúlio Dorneles Vargas, who established the Social Democratic Party and the Brazilian Labour Party to buffer his weakening administration.

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